Una de las preguntas frecuentes de nuestros clientes es acerca de las especies de micorriza que componen nuestros productos. Es fundamental conocer la especie de micorriza que queremos incorporar a nuestro campo y asegurarnos de que va a ser capaz de establecer una simbiosis efectiva con nuestras plantas. Si además de la especia, conocemos la cepa, podemos buscar en la literatura científica los resultados que se han obtenido y qué grupos científicos avalan dichas publicaciones. Sin embargo, es más difícil que los ingenieros y técnicos agrícolas, así como los productores, se interesen por cómo esas micorrizas se han producido, aunque éste sea un aspecto crítico para su buen rendimiento en campo.

La producción de inóculo de micorriza que se comercializa en mercados internacionales no siempre es capaz de establecer una simbiosis efectiva con las plantas y esto es atribuible, en parte, al sistema de producción. Existen fundamentalmente tres sistemas de producción de micorriza:

  • In vivo en campo abierto,
  • In vivo en condiciones de invernadero,
  • Mediante propagación in vitro.

El sistema in vitro ha sido el método empleado por laboratorios en todo el mundo para su aplicación en estudios de ciencia básica. Existen muchos trabajos que comparan los métodos de producción a gran escala, sus ventajas y sus debilidades, pero no hay tantos estudios que contrasten la misma cepa de micorriza producida en el mismo estado de maduración in vivo e in vitro.

Las investigadoras del IRTA Cinta Calvet, Amelia Camprubi y Ana Pérez-Hernández en colaboración con Paulo Emilio Lovato de la Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina en Brasil, hicieron un estudio concienzudo para arrojar luz sobre si el sistema de producción de micorriza puede alterar los resultados de la infectividad y colonización micorrícica. En dicho trabajo la cepa de Rhizoglomus irregulare BEG 72 (antiguamente Rhizophagus irregularis) se reprodujo, por un lado, mediante plantas hospedadoras in vivo, y por otro lado, en placas de Petri de cultivo monoxénico. En ambos sistemas el tiempo de crecimiento del inóculo fue el mismo, 6 meses.

Se recolectaron las esporas y sobre una muestra de 100 de ellas se procedió a medir su diámetro. Previamente ya había evidencias de que el sistema de producción puede alterar el tamaño de las esporas y efectivamente los resultados confirmaron esta hipótesis. Las esporas producidas in vitro eran significativamente menores, 83 µm frente a 117 µm. Los investigadores además pudieron comprobar que las esporas procedentes de la reproducción in vivo estaban menos pigmentadas. Estas mismas esporas fueron usadas para inocular plantas en condiciones de invernadero. Después de 10 semanas las provenientes del sistema in vivo alcanzaron un porcentaje de micorrización significativamente más alto que las esporas producidas in vitro.

Los resultados permitieron a los autores concluir que la diferencia de tamaño en las esporas se debía a las adaptaciones del hongo mientras se desarrollaba en diferentes condiciones de crecimiento. Este fenómeno ya se había observado en otros estudios de micorrizas. Asimismo, el menor tamaño de las esporas in vitro se podía relacionar con la menor cantidad de nutrientes en el medio de las placas de Petri. Una característica de las esporas de micorriza más pequeñas es que usualmente presentan menor número de núcleos (las células de las micorrizas son polinucleadas). Las micorrizas in vivo al presentar mayor número de núcleos se les supondría mayor potencial de desarrollo después de la germinación y para establecer la asociación con la planta. Este hecho podría estar detrás de la mayor colonización de las raíces con estas esporas.

Más allá de los resultados obtenidos, estudios como este refuerzan la importancia no solo de inocular las plantas con una cepa de micorriza que nos proporcione el rendimiento deseado, sino que también del sistema de producción. Particularmente revela las diferencias entre una producción in vivo frente a in vitro. In vitro las condiciones de desarrollo del hongo están restringidas y libres de las complejas interacciones con el medio ambiente. Un entorno in vitro es el más adecuado para ensayos de investigación básica en los que la mayoría de las variables deben ser controladas en un entorno estéril. Sin embargo, para estudios de campo y para la utilización de micorrizas en producciones agrícolas los hongos deben haberse producido en un sistema de similares características que garantice al máximo su persistencia en los suelos a la vez que conservan intacta su infectividad y eficiencia. Este mismo es el argumento por el cual Atens ha apostado por un sistema de producción in-vivo usando invernaderos de última generación y completamente automatizados.

Gorka Erice
Director Técnico de Atens

Agradecimientos

  • Cinta Calvet, Amelia Camprubí, Ana Pérez-Hernández, Paulo Emílio Lovato. Plant Growth Stimulation and Root Colonization Potential of In Vivo versus In Vitro Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inocula. Horticultural Science 48(7):897-901
  • Imágenes: Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith; Rhizophagus irregularis (Blaszk., Wubet, Renker & Buscot) Walker & Schußler; Rhizoglomus irregulare (Blaszk., Wubet, Reneker & Buscot) Sieverd., Silva & Oehl

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